It refers to a condition in which the clear lens in the eye becomes opaque, preventing light from reaching the retina and thus, resulting in a decrease in vision.

How can a person get cataract?

  • As a part of the ageing process
  • Due to an eye injury
  • Due to diseases such as diabetes
  • Due to development and nutritional issues in children

Risk factors

  • Prolonged exposure to ultra violet light
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Smoking
  • Acute diarrhoea during childhood

Symptoms of cataract

  • Blurred vision
  • Seeing double or triple
  • Seeing rainbow coloured circles of light around a source of light

Treatment of cataract

  • The only form of treatment of this disease is surgery.
  • Nowadays, almost all cataract operations are performed with a lens implantation. Cataract surgery without a lens implantation makes it necessary to use high power spectacles.

It is a condition wherein the pressure inside the eye increases steadily, either due to an increase in the production of the aqueous humour or more commonly, due to a decrease in its drainage.

Causes of glaucoma

  • Due to a defect in the drainage pathway within the eye
  • Injury to the eye
  • Birth defect
  • In many cases, the consumption of contaminated Mustard oil can cause glaucoma

Symptoms of glaucoma

  • Pain
  • Redness in the eye
  • Constant eye watering
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chronic Glaucoma is a degenerative condition and the decline in vision, in this case, is gradual and generally has no definitive tell-tale signs/symptoms.

Treatment of glaucoma

  • Early stage acute glaucoma is treated with medicines and by using laser treatment.
  • Early stage chronic glaucoma is treated with medicines.
  • Late stage glaucoma (both types) requires surgical treatment.


  • Diabetes is a horrendous disease that wrecks every part of the body, especially the blood vessels.
  • The existing blood vessels become leaky and the newer vessels that are formed tend to be very fragile.
  • Similar changes occur in the eye, and the most serious condition of the many created results in the retina getting infected.
  • This may lead to further complications, such as haemorrhaging in the eye and severe loss of vision.
  • In the case of a patient who has well-controlled diabetes, it takes 10-15 years for early changes to occur in the eye/s. However, in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes, these changes occur much earlier and progress faster.

Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy
Patients suffering from this condition need to get a baseline fluorescence angiography of the eye done, in order to detect the magnitude of the disease. If needed, laser treatment can be undertaken.
Diabetic patients are advised to keep their diabetes under control and should get regular body and eye check-up’s done at least once a year.

In the case of those affected by this condition, only the central part of the retina is affected.

Types and symptoms
Dry type: Slight deterioration of vision.

  • Gradual deterioration of vision.
  • Generally detected during a routine eye check-up.

Wet type: Severe deterioration of vision.

  • Marked (sudden) deterioration of vision.
  • Detected when a patient complains of severe visual impairment.

Risk factors

  • Excessive exposure to sunlight
  • Smoking
  • Plus powered spectacles
  • Heart diseases
  • Light coloured iris


  • In the case of the dry type of ARMD, antioxidants such as vitamin E, Zinc, Selenium and so on have been found to be useful.
  • In the case of the wet type of ARMD, latest developments in the field of laser and surgical technology seem to provide a ray of hope.